Introductory Physics II
Syllabus PH1120, Winter 2009You are just beginning the second semester of a two semester course in Introductory Physics. Your first semester has indeed been challenging with the new technologies and the collaborative learning environment. We plan to keep many of the same things this semester and to change some things too. You will continue to work in collaborative groups or at least do more than we've done in the past. It has been demonstrated not only by scores of students before you, but by your very class that the collaborative model works! Indeed, test scores and even the final exam all indicate that people do learn better together. The computer has empowered you by integrating many processes together. Your reports, your analyses in spreadsheets and problem solutions all indicate you are doing better than any group of students before you. Congratulations!
But on to this semester. We learned that there are four forces in nature and that forces, according to Newton's Laws, ( F=ma ) reflects a change in the state of motion of an object. We did this from the particle perspective. We continue to do so this semester too. Actually, I'm going to tell you that Newton was wrong. Well, fundamentally he was, but his results are "close enough for government work." They are so good that we can send a mission to Mars (note the present Spirit and Opportunity roving there) and be within seconds of predicted arrival time and within metres of the insertion orbit. That is good, but for some other things it is not good enough. Newton's perspectives worked, but they were limited. Today we know more exactly how the world works. We learned that a property of matter, namely mass, is described by gravitational effects. We continue our exploration of the world from a mechanical perspective by looking at another property of matter, namely charge, how it is affected by and itself affects, the rest of the world. In particular, we explore the Electrical and Magnetic aspects of our world. Then we move on to optics and wave mechanics and finally end up looking at the atom, elementary particles and even try to tie all of this together into a sort of comprehensive model of the universe. This is no humble task. Fortunately, together we are up to it!
We continue to use the new technologies (You'll note that over the semester break we installed new computers in our parlor) and will attempt to keep the activities integrated into the content learning. We will learn to use sophisticated equipment but hopefully in nonthreatening ways. We are going to concentrate ever more so on higher order thinking skills, especially problem solving. We added new software to allow you to have more control over variables in simulations and in problem solving. Flower's problem solving algorithm and the computer will togteher become an extraordinarily powerful tool for you to use to learn physics.
Your Tutor for this semester is . not yet determined. We do have a very capable student we are working with and will announce her availability if things work out. In the mean time the O'neill Center does have competent assistants to help out.
Times available (Winter 2009):
The following schedule is at best tentative. With a small group we certainly can be flexible and change things the way we want to. This schedule does allow us to complete the tasks at hand:
Textbook:Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics by Serway and Jewett (same as last semester)
Tentative Schedule:Block I:
Labs are Italicized.
Block I: Electrostatics and DC Electricity
Lesson 1: Tuesday, February 3rd
- Electric Forces and Electric Fields
Reading: Chapter 23, Sections 1 - 7 Questions: Chapter 23, Discussion Questions 1, 3, 8, 13, 26 Problems: Chapter 23, Problems 3, 7, 15, 22, 26, 33, 35, 43, 49
Computer: Introduction to ProSolv
Objectives: 23.1 You will understand the basic properties of charged matter:
a. Like charges repel, unlike charges attract
b. Charge is conserved
c. Charge is quantized; i.e., based on e-
23.2 You will understand the difference between conductors and insulators from a charge transport point of view.
23.3 You will be able to use Coulomb's Law to solve electrical interaction problems.
You should recognize that the Electric Field is basically the force that a test charge would experience. What we describe in terms of electric forces depends on what a test charge would experience.
23.5 You will be able to use the calculus to find the net effects of continuous charge distributions in the real world. Lesson 2: Thursday, February 4th
- Gauss' Law
Reading: Chapter 24, Sections 1 - 5 Questions: Chapter 24, Discussion Questions 1, 2, 9, 11
Problems: Chapter 24, Problems 13, 19, 24, 29, 34, 48, 51, 55
Computer: ProSolv - Electric Fields
Activity: A:1 Introduction to Meters and Electrical Equipment
A:2 Electrostatics, Charge Distributions on a Conductor
Objectives: 24.1 You will be able to state Gauss' Law
24.2 You will be able to use Gauss' Law to find the Electric Field for certain symmetrical charge distributions
24.3 You will be able to describe the electrical nature of conductors and insulators
24.4 You will useproperties of conductors to help in solving electrostatic problems:
a. E is zero inside a conductor
b. Excess charge on an isolated conductor resides on its surface
c. Charge tends to accumulate at sharp points
d. E just outside a conductor is perpendicular to the surface and has a value:
s / eo
Friday, February 6th: Last day to add a class without instructor's signature.
Lesson 3: Tuesday, Feb 10th
- Electric Potential and Capacitance
Reading: Chapter 25, Sections 1 - 8 Questions: Chapter 25, Discussion Questions 1, 3, 5, 7 Problems: Chapter 25, Problems 3, 6, 17, 32, 39, 43, 55, 67 Computer: ProSolv - Electric Potentials Activity: None
Objectives: 25.1 You will be able to define Potential Difference, V, as the potential energy per unit charge (our test charge)
25.2 You will relate the Potential Difference to the Electric Fieldso that DV = E . d
25.3 At this point you should recognize that there are now three ways to calculate the Electric Field:
a. Coulomb's Law
b. Gauss' Law
c. The Electric Potential
25.4 You will be able to calculate the Electric Potential for a variety of charge distributions, discrete and continuous Lesson 4: Thursday, Feb 12th
- Capacitance and Dielectrics
Reading: Chapter 26, Sections 1 - 7 Questions: Chapter 26, Discussion Questions 1, 2, 7, 16
Problems: Chapter 26, Problems 7, 10, 18, 20, 21, 31, 53 Computer: Activity: A:3 Capacitance and Dielectrics
Objectives: 26.1 Capacitor is a physical device which holds charge. As such they store electrical energy
26.2 The Capacitance of a device depends strictly on its geometry and physical characteristics
26.3 The equivalent capacitance of a group of capacitors in parallel is:
Ceq = C1 + C2 + C3 + ...
26.4 The equivalent capacitance of a group of capacitors in series is:
1/Ceq = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3 + ...
26.5 The effect of adding a dielectric material to a capacitor adding a dielectric material to a capacitor is to increase the amount of charge it can hold for the same voltage. i.e., it basically increases the capacitance of the device.
26.6 This effect can be written C = k Co
Lesson 5: Tuesday, February 17th
- Current and Resistance
Reading: Chapter 27, Sections 1 - 6 Questions: Chapter 27, Discussion Questions 10, 11, 12, 13, 17 Problems: Chapter 27, Problems 9, 13, 17, 36, 38, 44, 49, 52, 65 Computer: ProSolv - Resistances and Equivalent Resistance Activity: None
Objectives: 27.1 Current is the rate of flow of the electric charge. It is defined to have a direction of the flow of positive charge.
27.2 I = dQ/dt
27.3 Ohm's Law is written:
R = V / I or V = I R
27.4 Resistors "resist" the flow of electricity. They depend directly on the nature of the material, the length and inversely with the cross sectional area:
R = L/ A
27.5 Power is the rate at which energy is supplied to the resistor.
P = I V
27.6 According to Ohm's Law we can write Power as:
P = I2 R = V2 / R
27.7 The emf of a battery is the voltage across the terminals of a battery when the current is zero.
Lesson 6: Thursday, February 19th
- Direct Current Circuits
Reading: Chapter 28, Sections 1 - 6 Questions: Chapter 28, Discussion Questions 1, 3, 7, 8, 11, 16 Problems: Chapter 28, Problems 1, 6, 9, 15, 20, 21, 31, 34 Computer: Activity: A:4 Transient Behavior of R-C Series Circuit
Objectives: 28.1 Know Kirchoff's Rules:
a. The sum of the currents at a junction are zero
b. The sum of the voltages around a loop are zero
These rules are statements of conservation of charge and conservation of energy
The equivalent resistance of a group of resistors in series is:
Req = R1 + R2 + R3 + ...
The equivalent resistance for a group of resistors in parallel is:
1/Req = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 + ...
Know how Batteries work
28.6 Be able to useKirchoff's Rulesto solve simple DC Circuits. This is crucial to the understanding of electricity!
28.7 The time constant of an RC series circuit is:
t = R C
- Session 7: Tuesday, February 24th
- Opportunity to Excel #1 !!!
- Chapters 23 - 28, Individual Effort
In the least there will be questions to calculate Electric Field using Coulomb's Law, Gauss' Law and the Electric Potential. You will solve problems involving capacitors, resistors, batteries and other circuit elements. You should be able to calculate times in transient RC series circuits ands completely solve DC Circuit problems.
- Celebration of Women's History Month at National Laboratory
Wednesday, February 25th- Ash Wednesday!
Block II: Magnetism, Induction and Wave Motion
Session 8: Thursday, February 26th
Reading: Chapter 29, Sections 1 - 6 Questions: Chapter 29, Discussion Questions 2, 5, 9, 14
Problems: Chapter 29, Problems 1, 9, 14, 23, 29, 35, 40, 44, 46, 71
Computer: ProSolv - Magnetic Fields Activity: A:5 Measurement of Resistance by Wheatstone's Bridge
You should understand the nature of magnetic poles. Like poles repel an unlike poles attract.
The Earth acts like a dipole magnet with the North magnetic pole in the southern polar region and the South magnetic pole in the Arctic.
The student will recognize similarities and differences between the Electric and Magnetic Fields
29.4 Magnetic Field line can be drawn something like Electric Field lines except that Electric Fields start at positive charge and end at negative charges. Magnetic fields don't start or end. They flow continuously in the direction from North Pole to South Pole.
29.5 Magnetism is characterized by dipoles as the simplest case. i.e., there is no way to isolate North and South Poles.
29.6 Like poles repel and opposite poles attract.
29.7 For a charged particle moving in an external magnetic field, a force is experienced such that:
F = q v X B
29.8 A current can be considered an aggregate of charges in motion. Thus, a current carrying wire inserted into an external magnetic field will experience a force such that:
F = I L X B or dF = I dL X B
29.9 The Biot-Savart Law is much like Coulomb's Law, but not an exact correlation. It characterizes the Magnetic Field much like Coulomb's Law characterizes the Electric Field:
dB = km I ds X r / r2
Session 9: Tuesday, March 3rd
- Sources of the Magnetic Field
Reading: Chapter 30, Sections 1 - 9 Questions: Chapter 30, Discussion Questions 1, 2, 4, 9, 14
Problems: Chapter 30, Problems 3, 4, 15, 17, 23, 26, 31, 35, 38
Computer: ProSolv Activity:
Objectives: 30.1 Current carrying wires cause magnetic fields to exist in concentric circles about the wire. Note that this is perpendicular to any electric field caused by the charges on the wire.
30.2 Because electric currents are charges in motion and the current itself causes a magnetic field to exist, two current carrying wires create a force between them. The resultant force depends on the directions of the currents and the distance between the wires.
30.3 For two current carrying wires, the force is attractive if the currents are in the same direction while repulsive if they are in opposite directions.
30.4 Ampere's Law is in essence an analog of Gauss' Law for Electrostatics. Do not get this confued. It is not Gauss' Law for magnetism. We will see there is one for that too. But magnetism is different than electrostatics. Charges must be in motion and the resultant magnetic field has closed lines; i.e. they don't start or stop at any point. They are continuous. Being so, they enclose an area with a line path. Gauss' Law one the other hand,enclosed a volume with a surface.
B . ds = µoI
30.5 Ampere's Law can help us find the magnetic field for simple symmetries (much like Gauss' Law for electrostatics helped to find the electric field for simple symmetries.) Among these are solenoids and toroids.
30.6 As with electrostatic characteristics, the magnetic effects are basically a result of interaction of matter. Magnetic effects ultimately arise from the atomic dipoles created by electron orbital motion and electron spin.
Your instructor will be in Washington, D.C.meeting with congressional delegation regarding NASA. There will be no lab on Wednesday and no class on Thursday. This is an opportunity to catch up on everything.
Sunday, March 8th is also when we move our clocks ahead to Daylight Savings Time
Session 10: Tuesday, March 10th
- Faraday's Law and Inductance
Reading: Chapter 31, Sections 1 - 7 Questions: Chapter 31, Discussion Questions 1, 2, 5, 7, 13
Problems: Chapter 31, Problems 1, 5, 7, 9, 26, 32
State and Explain Maxwell's Equations .
Computer: ProSolv Activity: A:7 Magnetic Field Strength - Spreadsheet problem
Objectives: 31.1 Faraday's law tells us that the emf (voltage) induced in a circuit is proportional to the time rate of change of the magnetic flux. (i.e., if magnetic field is constant, the induced emf is zero)
e = - N djm/dt
31.2 The magnetic field flux can be written (just like electric field flux)
jm = B . dA
31.3 Lenz's Law states that the induced current (obviously, if there is an induced emf, there is an induced current as well) and induced emf in a conductor are in such a direction as to oppose the change (recall that it depends on time rate of change) that produced them.
31.4 Thus we can write Faraday's Law in a more general form:
e = E . ds = - djm/dt
where E is a non-conservative, time-varying electric field produced by the changing magnetic flux. (Since B is changing, it is expected that the E field it cuases is also changing in a proportional manner.)
31.5 Maxwell's Equations, together with the Lorentz Force, describe all classical electromagnetic interactions. These include:
a. Gauss' Law for electrostatics
c. Faraday's Law of Induction
b. Gauss' Law for magnetostatics
d. Ampere's Law with the displacement current included.
- Session 11: Thursday, March 12th
Reading: Chapter 32, Sections 1 - 6 Questions: Chapter 32, Discussion Questions 1, 6, 9, 11,16, 17
Problems: Chapter 32, Problems 3, 5, 7, 14, 23, 31, 49
Computer: ProSolv Activity: A:8 - ElectroMagnetics - Fun and Games
Objectives: 32.1 The student should be able to explain what these equations describe regarding electromagnetic interactions.
32.2 For a R-L series circuit, the time constant (time to decay to 1/e of the initial value) is:
t = L / R
32.3 In a R-L series circuit, when the switch is closed and the current increases towards it maximum value, the inductor produces an emf that opposes the increasing current. This is a manifestation of Lenz's Law.
32.4 The energy in this circuit is stored in the magnetic field (much like that of a circuit with capacitor wherein the energy is stored in the associated electric field.)
Tuesday March 17th Everybody's Irish for a day!
Session 12: Tuesday, March 17th
Alternating Current Circuits
Reading: Chapter 33, Sections 1 - 9 Questions: Chapter 33, Discussion Questions 1, 3, 6, 7, 8, 10, 15, 17
Problems: Chapter 33, Problems 1, 3, 5, 7, 12, 14, 19, 20, 31, 38, 41, 44
Session 13: Thursday, March 19th
- Electromagnetic Waves
Reading: Chapter 34, Sections 1 - 9
Questions: Chapter 34, Discussion Questions 1, 2, 4, 7, 9, 10, 14, 15, 21
Problems: Chapter 34, Problems 5, 7, 10, 14, 15, 17, 29, 43, 51, 65
Computer: None Activity: A:8 AC Circuits
Objectives: 34.1 To understand how Maxwell's Equations are used to obtain the wave equations for Electromagnetic Waves in free space.
34.2 To understand the LC Circuit and its Resonance Frequency
34.3 To understand the production Electromagnetic Waves by an antenna.
34.4 To understand that electromagnetic waves carry energy and to learn what the Poynting Vector, the Average Power per Unit Area, the total Energy Density and the Average Energy Density of an electromagnetic wave are.
34.5 To understand that electromagnetic waves transport linear momentum and to become familiar with the definitions of total momentum and radiation pressure.
34.6 To describe the electromagnetic spectrum.
Physics Holiday! No Class! (Hah! Actually, It's SPRING BREAK) Are we having fun yet !!!
Friday, March 20th, 2009 at 1146 (UT)
Today we have the occurence of the Vernal Equinox. Far from being an arbitrary indicator of the changing seasons, March 20 (March 21 in some years) is significant for astronomical reasons. OAt this time, the Sun will cross directly over the Earth's equator. This moment is known as the vernal equinox in the Northern Hemisphere. For the Southern Hemisphere, this is the moment of the autumnal equinox.The Sun is actually in Pisces (as seen from the Earth - remember, it is the Earth that is moving, not the Sun) as it moves to this point.The Astronomical Definition is well known. Have you ever heard of trying to stand an egg on end during the equinox? What a cool weekend activity. Naaah! The position of the equinox has changed over the millennia with respect to the fixed stars. The vernal equinox which is both a time and a direction in space is called the first point of Aries. Find out why it is in Pisces now and when last it was in Aries. Noruz is the oldest continuously celebrated human holiday. The Vernal equinox was in Taurus when this celebration began 5,000 years ago. Find out when we will really enter the age of Aquarius.
Spring is here!! (Well, sort of...)
- Opportunity to Excel # 2
- Chapters 29 - 34
Wednesday: Don't Forget Today, April 1st is April Fools Day
Block III: Radiant Energy, E-M Waves and Special Relativity
Session 15: Thursday, April 2nd
- The PROPOGATION of LIGHT: Scattering or
- Reflection and Refraction of Light
Chapter 35: Nature of Light, Sections 1 - 9 Questions:
Discussion Questions: 1, 6, 7, 8, 14
Chapt 35, Problems: 12, 15, 16, 21, 24, 37
Objectives: 35.1 To understand the ray approximation in geometrical optics.
35.2 In general, to understand reflection and refraction. Specifically, to undertand:
a. The Law of Reflection
b. Snell's Law
c. The Law of Refraction
d. The Index of Refraction
35.3 To undertand what dispersion is and how it can affect light. To understand what happens when light enters a prism.
35.4 To understand Huygens' Principle and how it is applied to reflection and refraction.
35.5 To understand total internal reflection and the critical angle.
To explain how colors are absorbed and added together
Session 16: Tuesday, April 7thInterference of Light Waves
Skip Chapter 36 on Geometrical Optics. We will spend our time with Physical Optics instead. Read Chapter 37: Sections 1 - 7
Questions: Chapter 37, Discussion Questions: 1, 6, 9, 12 Problems: Chapter 37, Problems: 1, 2, 3, 23, 24, 30, 34, 41, 56
ProSolv\Optics\Reflection and Refraction
Objectives: 37.1 To understand Interference and the conditions under which it will ocurr.
37.2 To understand Young's Double Slit experiment. To do so, you must know path difference, constructive interference and destructive interference.
37.3 To understand the distribution of light intensity associated with the double-slit interference pattern.
37.4 To understand constructive and destructive interference in thin films.
37.5 To understand what Newton's Rings are and under what conditions they are formed.
37.6 To understand Fraunhofer Diffraction from a Single Slit and the condition for destructive interference. You should be familiar with the intensity pattern for the Single-Slit Fraunhofer Diffraction pattern.
37.7 To understand Rayleigh's Criterion and the limiting angle of resolution for a slit.
37.8 To understand the Diffraction Grating which requires you to understand the condition for maxima, the resolving power, and the resolving power of a grating.
37.9 To understand the diffraction of x-rays by crystals and Bragg's Law.
37.10 In general, to understand the polarization of light waves.
Interference and Physical OPTICS
Reading: Chapter 37: Sections 1 - 7......................................................... Questions: Chapter 37, Discussion Questions: 1, 6, 9, 12 Problems: Chapter 37, Problems: 1, 2, 3, 23, 24, 30, 34, 41, 56 Computer:
ProSolv\Optics\Thin Film Interference
CD - Interactive Explorations
Objectives: 37.11 To understand constructive and destructive interference in thin films
37.12 To understand that Maxima (constructive interference) in normally reflected loight occur when the film thickness is a whole number multiple of half-wavelength.
37.13 To understand that Minima (destructive interference) occur when the thickness of the film is an odd multiple of 1/4 wavelength.
37.14 To.explain how a Michelson Interferometer works.
37.15 To understand what Newton's Rings are and under what conditions they are formed.
For Multiple Slit Interference:
Consider a series of N narrow slits separated by distances d. In the far-field approximation, the phase difference as a function of distance d from the slits and angle from the normal is given by
where k is the wavenumber. The intensity due to multiple interference is then
This function has a extrema when
which holds when
The absolute maximum occurs at , where
using l'Hôspital's rule . Principal maxima occur at
and principal minima at
where is not an integer. There are zeros between principal maxima, and secondary maxima between principle maxima.
37.17 To understand Rayleigh's Criterion and the limiting angle of resolution for a slit.
37.18 To understand the Diffraction Grating which requires you to understand the condition for maxima, the resolving power, and the resolving power of a grating.
37.19 To understand the basic principles of holography, what it is and how it works.
To explainwhy the sky is blue.
An atmospheric phenomena often seen is the Corona or sometimes we call it a sundog. The corona has nothing to do with the Sun's outer atmosphere visible during a total eclipse and confusingly is given the same name. This can be seen when thin clouds partially veil the sun or moon. You can also see one around the moon when it is nearly full. Be sure to shield the sun or look at it reflected in a pool of water or a mirror of plain glass. Remember - looking the sun can permanently damage your vision!!!
Coronae have an intensely bright central aureole which is almost white and fringed with yellows and reds. A lot of times this is all you can see yet sometimes you'll see one or more successively fainter and gently colored rings surrounding the aureole. The first ring is blue (the inner one) going through greens and yellows to red on the outermost ring. The corona can be 15º or so in diameter but varies as different clouds move across the moon.The coronae is usually smaller than the 22° halo which can also ring the sun and moon.
Coronae are produced by the diffraction of light by tiny cloud droplets or sometimes small ice crystals.
Friday, April 10th is Good Friday
Sunday , April 12th is Easter SundaySince the date of Easter (East comes from the Greek anatole' meaning "the place of the risings") is defined astronomically, you should be able to explain how the date of Easter is determined.
Session 17: Tuesday April 14th
Reading: Chapter 38: Sections 1 - 6......................................................... Questions: Chapter 38, Discussion Questions: 1, 2, 6, 8, 10, 14, 16
Problems: Chapter 38, Problems: 1, 3, 11, 13, 15, 16, 21, 50, 56, 57
ProSolv\Optics\Thin Film Interference
CD - Interactive Explorations
Objectives: 38.1 To understand the difference between Fraunhofer and Fresnel Diffraction
38.2 To understand that Diffraction fundamentally an interference effect.
38.3 To be able to calculate the distances between successive dark lines: sin q = ml / a
38.4 To.explain how Michelson Interferometer works.
38.5 To understand how a diffraction envelope appears over a double slit interference pattern.
38.6 To explain how relative intensity depends on the square of the sin function.
38.7 To understand Rayleigh's Criterion and the limiting angle of resolution for a slit.
To understand the Diffraction Grating which requires you to understand the condition for maxima, the resolving power, and the resolving power of a grating.
A diffraction grating is the tool of choice for separating the colors in incident light.
It acts as a "super prism", separating the different colors of light much more than the dispersion effect in a prism. The illustration shows the hydrogen spectrum. The hydrogen gas in a thin glass tube is excited by an electrical discharge and the spectrum can be viewed through the grating.The tracks of a compact disc act as a diffraction grating, producing a separation of the colors of white light. The nominal track separation on a CD is 1.6 micrometers, corresponding to about 625 tracks per millimeter. This is in the range of ordinary laboratory diffraction gratings. For red light of wavelength 600 nm, this would give a first order diffraction maximum at about 22° .
38.9 To understand the basic principles of holography, what it is and how it works.
38.10 To explain interferometry.
Radio interferometry is a powerful tool that can be used for a number of diverse applications. A radio interferometer consists of a pair of directional antennas that are tuned to receive radio emissions from a source in a desired RF band. The signals from the two receivers are then cross-correlated (multiplied and accumulated) to produce a cross-correlation "fringe pattern". This fringe pattern can then be analyzed to produce a result ranging from an image of a distant astronomical object to the precise location of a nearby terrestrial or extra-terrestrial radio emitter.
The following diagram shows an arrangement consisting of three steerable antennas, forming three distinct interferometers.
- Relativity and Its Applications
Reading: Chapter 39, Sections 1 - 6 Questions: Chapter 39: 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 11, 12, 16, 19 Problems: Chapter 39: Problems 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 14, 17, 25, 29, 32, 33, 45 Computer: Activity:
Objectives: 39.1: The Special Theory of Relativity is based upon two postulates:
- a. Laws of Physics are the same in all Inertial Reference Frame
- b. Speed of Light is constant in all inertial reference frames
39.2: Simultaneous events in one reference frame are not simultaneous in another (that is in motion at a uniform speed relative to the first.)
39.3:Moving clocks run slow. This is called Time Dilation.
39.4:Lengths of moving objects appear to be contracted.
39.5: Explain that the fundamental postulates of Relativity tell us that the outcome of an experiment depends on the observer.
39.6: Explain the Twin Paradox.
39.7: Describe the experimental basis for relativity
This is the last day to withdraw from a course and it is also the last dat to designate a grading option.
Don't forget to file your Income Tax on time?
Relativity and Its Applications
Reading: Chapter 39, Sections 6-10 Questions: Chapter 39, 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 11, 12, 16, 19 Problems: Chapter39: Problems 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 14, 17, 25, 29, 32, 33, 45 Computer: Activity: A 12: Millikan Oil Drop Experiment Objectives: 39.5: The Relativistic Momentum of an object is dilated by the same factor, gamma, as time is expanded by.
39.6: The Rest Energy of an object is mc2
39.7: The Total E nergy of an object is E = g mc2
39.7a: The Kinetic Energy is K = gmc2 - mc2
39.8: Nuclear Fission occurs when a heavy nucleus, such as Uranium, splits into two smaller fragments
39.9: Nuclear Fusion occurs when two light nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus and release energy in the process.
39.10: Explain what Binding Energy is.
39.11: Explain the difference between fission and fusion.
Session 21: Thursday, April 23rd
- Opportunity to Excel # 3
Chapters 35, 37, 38, 39 (Not including 36, whew!)
Block IV: Modern Physics
Lesson 22: Tuesday, April 28th
- Origins of Modern Physics
Reading: Chapter.40, .Sections 1 - 8 Questions: Chapter 40, Questions 1, 4, 7, 9, 17 Problems: Chapter 40, Problems Problems 1, 4,7,16,21,34,36,42,51,53 Computer: Check assigned links to remote URLs Activity: A:13 - Ethics consideration regarding Harvey Fletcher's paper: My Work with Millikan on the Oil-Drop Experiment, Physics Today, June 1982. Harvey Fletcher was the graduate student who performed this experiment under the direction of Millikan. Millikan was awarded the Nobel Prize referencing this experiment. Obviously, Fletcher should not have received the Nobel Prize for this work since it was not his original idea, but in fact, he made the experiment work. The question arises as to how is credit acknowledged and what is the role of a student working under a professor. There is no "right" answer that Fletcher was unjustly treated or whatever. But it does point to researchers and the fact that we do not take credit for the work of others. These comments are due after you complete the actual experiment this week.
Objectives: .1 You should be able to explain what is meant by quanta of charge.
.2 You should be able to describe a Cathode Ray Tube and how it works.
.3 You should be able to explain J. J. Thomson's experiment and how it isolated q/m for the electron.
.4 You should be able to relate x-ray diffraction to monochromatic light diffraction.
.8 You should be able to describe Rutherford Scattering and its implications to atomic theory.
.9 You should be able to explain the Balmer, Lyman and Paschen series for the hydrogen atom.
The Evolution of Quantum Theory
- Quantum Physics
Reading: Chapter , Sections Questions: Chapter , Multiple Choice Questions Problems: Chapter , Problems assigned via e-mail Computer: ............................................................ Activity:
The student will be able to describe Black Body Radiation and the inability of classical physics to explain the phenomena
.2 The student will be able to explainPlank's Hypothesis:
E = hf
.3 The student will be able to describe (as above) the Photoelectric Effect and Einstein's use of the photon description
.4 The student will be able to describe the conditions for Compton Scattering and the dependence upon scattering angle:
Dl = h/mc ( 1 - cos q )
.5 The student will be able to describe the dual nature of light and what a Photon is.
Tuesday is Cinco de Mayo!
Lesson 24: Tuesday, May 5th
- Intro to Quantum Mechanics
- In this section we consider how Quantum Mechanics evolved, what it is and what it means to us. It is the approach we use to studying the atom.If we can explain a simple atom we have the plan to build up to the complex from the simple. It does not always work that way.
Chapter 40, Sections 1-8 review
Chapter 41, Sections 1-8
Questions: Chapter 41, Multiple Choice Questions , 1, 5, 9 Problems: Chapter 41,Problems 1, 4,7,16,21,34,36,42,51,53 Computer: Visit assigned URLs
How Quantum Mechanics Saves Santa Claus Check it out! Activity: -none-
Objectives: .1 The student will be able to explain the Davisson Germer Experiment and the interference effects of matter waves.
.2 The student will be able to calculate the deBroglie wavelength of particles:
l = h / p
.3 The student will be able to calculate the deBroglie wavelength for various particles, both clasical and quantum.
.4 The student will be able to articulate the meaning of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle:
x px / 2
.5 Matter waves can be represented by a wave function
.6 The probability that a particle will be found at a point is ||2
.7 Furthermore, the probability that a particle confined to the x-axis is found in some interval dx is:
.8 Thus, the probability that the particle be found anywhere on the x-axis is the additive probabilities of the entire range of the particle:
||2 dx = 1
This is the Normalization condition on the wave function.
.9 The measured position x of the particle, averaged over many trials, is called the expectation value of x and is defined by:
< x > = x ||2 dx
.10 For a particle of mass m confined to a one-dimensional box of length L, the allowed wave functions are:
(x) = A sin ( n x / L ) for n = 1, 2, 3, ...
.11 The energies of the particle in the box are quantized in that they occur with discrete values and are given by:
En = ( h2 / 8mL2 ) n2 for n = 1, 2, 3, ...
Chapter 42, Sections 1-8 review
Questions: Chapter 42, Multiple Choice Questions , 2, 13, 18 Problems: Chapter 42,Problems 3, 6, 7, 17, 30, 31 Computer: 2
How Quantum Mechanics Saves Santa Claus Check it out! Activity: -none- We are into last week of school
Objectives 42.1 Methods of quantum mechanics can be applied to the hydrogen atom, using the appronpriate potential energy function:
U (r) = - k e2 / r
42.2 Solving the Schrodinger equation with the above potential the following solution results:
En = - (ke e2 / 2ao ) 1 / n2 = - 13.6 / n2 eV for n =1, 2, ...
42.3 The solution of the equation yields the following quantum numbers:
a. Principal Quantum Number
n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ...
These values correspond to the chemical shells, K, L, M,... and are related to the basic energy level of the electron.
b. Orbital Quantum Number
l = 0, 1, 2, 3, ... , ( n - 1 )
These values correspond to the chemical subshells, s, p, d, f.
c. Orbital Magnetic Quantum Number
ml = - l, - l + 1, - l + 2, ..., 0 , 1, 2, ..., l - 1, l
d. Spin Magnetic Quantum Number
ms = + 1/2 or - 1/2
corresponding to spin up or spin down state of the electron.
Lesson 26: Tuesday, May 12th
- Introduction to Nuclear Physics
Reading: Chapter 44, Sections 1 - 8
Questions: Chapter 44, Questions 1, 24, 6, 11 Problems:
Chapter 44, 9, 19, 24, 29, 37, 38,40
A Radioactive nucleus with decay constant l decays to a stable daughter nucleus. There are several steps to this:
- Show that the number of daughter nuclei increases with time according to the relationship: N2 = N01 ( 1 - e-lt) where N01 is the initial number of parent nuclei.
- Starting with 106 parent nuclei at t = 0, with a half-life of 10 hours, use the Euler method to track the number of parent and daughter nuclei as a function of time. Be sure to use an appropriate time interval. Dt must change slowly. Of course note that the half life is in hours, not milli-seconds.
- Plot both the number of parent nuclei and daughter nuclei as a function of time over a period of five days.
- Discuss results.
Computer:< Visit assigned URLs Objectives:
. You should be able to understand
1. Common properties of Nucleiincluding Z, N, A
2. Describe the size of the Nucleus
3. Describe Nuclear Stability
4. Explain what Binding Energy is.
5. Explain the difference between Fission and Fusion
6. Describe features of Standard Models of the Nucleus
7. Define Half-Life of radioactive materials
8. Explain the normal decay process.
9. Contrast Alpha, Beta and Gamma Alpha, Beta and Gamma Particles.
10 You ought to be able to describe the three major kinds of particles emitted from a nucleus during radioactive decay: Alpha, Beta and Gamma Radiation
11 You should be able to describe radioactive effects on human body.
12. You should be able to discern between a Curie, a Roentgen, a Rad and a Rem
Last Day of Class!!! - Thursday May 15th
- Applications of Nuclear Physics
Reading: Chapter 45, Sections 1 -7
Questions: Chapter 45, 1, 3, 5, 7, 15 Questions: Chapter 45, 1, 4, 8, 46, 57 Problems:
Computer: -none- Activity: A:18 - Radioactivity, Determination of Half-Life Objectives:
You should be able to intelligently discuss the radiation controversy
.1 Define ionizing radiation
.2 Describe sources of background radiation
.3 Contrast Absorbed Dose with Exposure.
.4 Explain the effects of ionizing radiation on human health
.5 Discuss average doses humans are exposed to.
Thursday, May 21st
- Final Exam, 0800 - 1000
Saturday, May 23rd