A Celebration of Flight
Congratulations and WELCOME to A Celebration of Flight, an Honors Seminar at the College of St. Catherine, offered during Fall 2003. This class is offered at 0955 to 1135 on Tuesday and Thursday of each week with laboratory activities to be performed on Thursday afternoon at 3:30 to 5:30 PM. Meeting times for lectures are yet to be determined. Labs will be conducted in MN311.
Welcome to Honors 468, A Celebration of Flight. At this point you are starting the one class of your undergraduate academic career that you will surely never forget. The reasons for this are not that it is so very difficult. Sure, this is basically an interdisciplinary course blending physics and literature. I firmly believe this is more a matter of perception than reality. That's okay - let everyone think you are real brainy for taking this course. Rather, it will be because of what you will study and the environment in which you will learn. This is a survey course, an introduction to the science of how airplanes work and also the appreciation of airplanes and flight as seen through literature. We'll only be able to scratch the surface but what we will do will make us more confident of ourselves and flight and help us to appreciate flight and the people who made it what it is today.
The inspiration for this course sprung forth from the celebration of the 100th anniversary of sustained power flight. On December 17th, 1903, Orville Wright sustained a flight of 120 feet, a distance shorter than one wing of a Boeing 747. That must have been thrilling for him. But anyone who has every piloted an airplane finds the words of John Gillespie Magee echoing within their inner being:
"High Flight"We do two basic things in this course. One, we will learn how airplanes fly. Yes, we will study the basic principles of aerodynamics and conduct experiments so we understand the science of flight. But this course, being an interdisciplinary one, also takes a look at the people behind flight, what makes it so thrilling, the dreams of the past and the promises of the future. You will probably never take another undergraduate course that will impact your very being as much as this one.
Oh! I have slipped the surly bonds of earth
And danced the skies on laughter-silvered wings;
Sunward I've climbed, and joined the tumbling mirth
Of sun-split clouds - and done a hundred things
You have not dreamed of - wheeled and soared and swung
High in the sunlit silence. Hov'ring there,
I've chased the shouting wind along, and flung
My eager craft through footless halls of air.
Up, up the long, delirious, burning blue
I've topped the wind-swept heights with easy grace
Where never lark, or even eagle flew -
And, while with silent lifting mind I've trod
The high untrespassed sanctity of space,
Put out my hand and touched the face of God.
One thing you will notice is that in class you will work at a computer station. You will collaborate with several others. Actually, this is an integral part of your learning too. Studying and working alone is not how it is done in the "real world." If you were working in industry you'd probably be part of a team. You will be part of a team here. You will learn together, content and activity, discussion of the literature, etc. We will be working with you on how to grade this, or what? You will have input in how things develop. Believe me, it would be far simpler for a professor to just lecture with chalk and blackboard. You might even benefit from the additional sleep time you would get (in a traditional classroom.) Hah! But we are together taking a risk in the hope that you will learn more about flight and enjoy the process in doing so!
One last thing. Your mother does not work here! By this we mean that you are expected to help keep our learning space in neat order and not expect your instructor to pick up after you. This includes straightening up the tables, computers, equipment and putting the chairs neatly in place at the end of each class period. Many others use this facility too. If you expect a custodian to come around between classes, Hello out there. !!! Thanks for your cooperation.
What Makes Airplanes Fly?
History, Science, and Applications of Aerodynamics
Peter P. Wegener, Yale University, New Haven, CT
272 pages , 8 x 9 1/4, 67 illus., hardcover
ISBN: 0-387-94784-1, published 1996
We will also have other readings in literature about flight. These include the following works, which, although not complete, give a sample of the human experience of flight:
by William Faulkner
The Right Stuff.
by Tom Wolfe
by James Salter
The readings will include samples from each of these works. Each is a masterpiece in itself but collectively the student will learn more about the human experience.
This class may be taken for Laboratory Lab Science credit or for Literature Credit. Thus half of the total grade will be based half on literature and half on science. The literature part will primarily be based on papers which allow students to analyze comparative authors and writings and express their own style as well. The science part will be based on Activity and content. The Activity (lab) part will be graded as a collaborative activity. That means one grade for your team. Everyone on the team will receive the same grade. There will be three or four periodic examinations which will be largely individual effort. The exams will be over Wegener's What Makes Airplanes Fly and classroom discussions on aerodynamics of flight.
Activity (Labs, collaborative) = 25 %
Periodic Exams = 25 %
Reflection Papers = 50 %
In today's world we see so many examples of plagiarism, falsifying research and the like. None of these actions are ethical and are as distasteful as cheating. The college's policy on academic integrity will be followed in this course. Additionally, you will be expected to completely document lab reports and any other written or oral work, sources, etc. Your instructors will guide you through this process. This is not a burden to the student or professional scientist, but in fact is complimentary and may help justify results.
Dr. Terry Flower Here's Terry behind the controls of NASA's 747 that flies the Space Shuttle. Terry was an Air Force instructor pilot and flight test pilot. He was course director of Applied Aerodynamics for the USAF pilot training system and went on to get his PhD at the University of Wyoming. He is still an active pilot, currently flying gliders at Stanton Field just south of the Twin Cities.
Dr. Randi Quanbeck Randi works at the University of Minnesota and is currently Program Coordinator for the Minnesota Space Grant. She is a Visiting Professor to our campus to help us experience another dimension of the thrill of flight through literature.
BLOCK I: Foundations of Flight
Lesson 1: Thursday, Sep 4
Introduction to this course and to Flight
Reading: "The Wasteland" by Elliott (available in class)
Questions: Faulkner and his influences - Joyce, Elliott
Activity: Video - To Fly
Analysis /Discussion of Wasteland - Small group work
Objectives: You should understand
1.1: Structure of the course, what you will do all semester long.
1.2: Requirements that must be accomplished including class meeting time, academic integrity, readings, labs, testing.
1.3: How your grade will be determined.
1.4: The attendance policy.
1.5: Explain the influence of Elliot's Wasteland on Faulkner's writing.
1.6: Identify main concepts/themes/metaphors in Wasteland in preparation for reading Pylon.
1.7: Examine metaphors in Wasteland (e.g. death by water).
Lesson 2: Tuesday, Sep 9
A Dream Comes True: The Wright Brothers and Their Predecessors
Reading: Chapter 1
- The First Flights at Kitty hawk
- Mythology and Legend
- Early Adventures
- From Cayleyto the Wright Brothers
- Which of the two Wright Brothers made the historic flight on Dec 17th, 1903?
- What are the essential aspects of controlled flight?
Three Axes of Flight
All motion in an airplane takes place about the center of gravity around one or more of the axes of rotation. These are the longitudinal axis, lateral axis, and vertical axis.
Longitudinal Axis - The longitudinal axis is an imaginary axis protruding through the nose of the aircraft. A rotation around this axis is known as a roll. This roll motion is produced by the ailerons. To enter a roll the outer aileron is displaced downward, increasing the lift on the outboard wing. The aileron on the inboard wing is raised, decreasing lift on that wing.
Lateral Axis - The lateral axis is an imaginary axis protruding through the side of the aircraft from near the center of the aircraft. Generally this acts through the wings but not necessarily so. A rotation around this axis is known as pitch. This pitch movement is produced by the elevators. In airplanes with a tail section the lift on the tail is decreased by raising the elevator resulting in a pitch upwards. If the elevator is deflected downwards the lift on the tail section is increased causing a pitch down motion.
Vertical Axis - The vertical axis is an imaginary axis protruding through the top and bottom of the aircraft from near the center of the aircraft. A rotation around this axis is know as yawing. This yaw movement is produced by the rudder.
- Are myth and legend about flight only a thing of the past? Cite some references of current dreams or visions that involve flight, through air or space.
- What is an ornithopter and who designed it ? Can humans do it today with new technologies?
All histories of ornithopters begin with Leonardo Da Vinci's human powered design. Although this was not capable of flight, it showed a great deal of careful thought and engineering. For example, the membrane wings clearly demonstrate Da Vinci's understanding that feathers are not required for successful flapping-wing flight. Also, the actuation mechanism comes close to optimizing the energy suppliable by the human engine.
Francesco de Lana-Terzi's lighter than air boat
What did Sir George Cayley contribute to advance the science of flight?
- The Wright Brother's airplane was a heavier than air craft. Who pioneered lighter than air ships and when and where did they become famous?
- Lilienthal flew gliders before the Wright Brothers and ultimately was killed. What were his acomplishments?
- Samuel Pierpont Langley had been recognized by the Smithsonian as building "... the first aeroplane capable of sustained free flight with a man."
Objectives: You should be able to
2.1: List and describe stories from mythology about man's flight, including that of Icarus and Daedalus
2.2: Describe lighter than air flight and the contributions of the Montgolfier brothers. Here is also what it is like to fly in a balloon.
2.3: Explain myths and legends of flight
2.4: Describe roles that visionaries like da Vinci and Monk Oliver of Malmesbury had on the development of flight.
"The bird is a machine that operates
according to mathematical law."
— Leonardo da Vinci
Lesson 3: Thursday, Sep 11
Images and Sounds of Modernity
Reading: Chapters 1 & 2 of The Pylon
Activity: Compare "Aeolis" in Ulysses
- Describe Laverne in Pylon
- Describe the Reporter in Pylon
- Describe Lil in Wasteland
- Describe Bloom in Aeolis
Percy Pilcher's Beetle
Pilcher in Flight!
Phillips 1904 Multiplane
Less than successful
What did the "crate" look
like in Faulkner's Pylon?
- Airport as a metaphor for the modern world?
- What is a Pylon and what might it represent in Modernity?
- Explain the significance of
Objectives: You should be able to
- Laverne's trenchcoat
- Jigg's boots
- Mardi Gras in Pylon
- Money in Pylon
- Water/Air/Fire in Pylon, Wasteland, Aeolis
- Journalism in any/all
3.1: Identify major characters, setting, themes (so far) in Pylon
3.2: Explain influence of major themes in Wasteland and Aeolis on Pylon
3.3: Compare narrative style of Faulkner and Joyce
Lab Activity 1: Process of Measuring and Reporting
Lesson 4: Tuesday, Sep 16
Milestones of the Modern Age
Reading: Chapter 2
Questions: What does it take?
- Notes on Aeronautical Research
- Great Moments in Aviation
Activity: How We Made The First Flight by Orville Wright
Activity: Movie: Those Magnificent Men in Their Flying Machines
Objectives: You should be able to describe the events
4.1: 1910 - Curtiss and the Golden Flyer, winning the $10,000 prize
4.2: Aircraft as a flying gas tank
4.3: 1909 - Bleroit, first crossing of English Channel
4.4: Vickers Vimy, crossing Atlantic June 14, 1919
Lindbergh - First Solo crossing of Atlantic, May 21, 1927
4.6: The Hindenburg disaster, May 6, 1937
4.7: Amelia Earhart, "...On May 20, 1932, she started the trek from Harbor Grace, Newfoundland, to Paris. Strong north winds, icy conditions and mechanical problems plagued the flight and forced her to land in a pasture near Londonderry, Ireland. "After scaring most of the cows in the neighborhood," she said, "I pulled up in a farmer's back yard."
Quotes by Amelia Earhart:4.8: Wiley Post - First Round the World Flight, in the Winnie Mae
"After midnight the moon set and I was alone with the stars. I have often said that the lure of flying is the lure of beauty, and I need no other flight to convince me that the reason flyers fly, whether they know it or not, is the esthetic appeal of flying."
"...decide...whether or not the goal is worth the risks involved. If it is, stop worrying...."
"My ambition is to have this wonderful gift produce practical results for the future of commercial flying and for the women who may want to fly tomorrow's planes."
"One of my favorite phobias is that girls, especially those whose tastes aren't routine, often don't get a fair break... It has come down through the generations, an inheritance of age-old customs which produced the corollary that women are bred to timidity."
"Preparation, I have often said, is rightly two-thirds of any venture."
"Courage is the price that Life exacts for granting peace."
"Women must try to do things as men have tried. When they fail, their failure must be but a challenge to others."
"[Women] must pay for everything.... They do get more glory than men for comparable feats. But, also, women get more notoriety when they crash."
"...now and then women should do for themselves what men have already done - occasionally what men have not done--thereby establishing themselves as persons, and perhaps encouraging other women toward greater independence of thought and action. Some such consideration was a contributing reason form my wanting to do what I so much wanted to do."
"In my life I had come to realize that when things were going very well indeed it was just the time to anticipate trouble. And, conversely, I learned from pleasant experience that at the most despairing crisis, when all looked sour beyond words, some delightful "break" was apt to lurk just around the corner."
"Never interrupt someone doing something you said couldn't be done."
"No kind action ever stops with itself. One kind action leads to another. Good example is followed. A single act of kindness throws out roots in all directions, and the roots spring up and make new trees. The greatest work that kindness does to others is that it makes them kind themselves."
"Adventure is worthwhile in itself."
"Never do things others can do and will do, if there are things others cannot do or will not do."
"The more one does and sees and feels, the more one is able to do, and the more genuine may be one's appreciation of fundamental things like home, and love, and understanding companionship."
"The most effective way to do it, is to do it."
"Not much more than a month ago I was on the other shore of the Pacific, looking westward. This evening, I looked eastward over the Pacific. In those fast-moving days which have intervened, the whole width of the world has passed behind us -except this broad ocean. I shall be glad when we have the hazards of its navigation behind us."
... Amelia Earhart, several days before she left for Howland Island and disappeared - Click on her image below for a video
- Route: LOG OF THE "WINNIE MAE"
(New York Daylight Savings Time)
TUESDAY, JUNE 23
4:56 A.M. - Took off from Roosevelt Field, N.Y.
11:48 A.M. - Landed at Harbor Grace, N.F.
3:28 P.M. - Took off from Harbor Grace
WEDNESDAY, JUNE 24
7:45 A.M. - Landed at Sealand Airdrome, near Chester, England
9:05 A.M. - Took off from Sealand Airdrome
12:45 P.M. - Landed at Hanover, Germany
1:50 P.M. - Took off from Hanover (Returned immediately for fuel.)
2:15 P.M. - Again took off from Hanover
3:30 P.M. - Landed at Tempelhof Airdrome, Berlin
THURSDAY, JUNE 25
2:38 A.M. - Took off from Berlin
11:30 A.M. - Landed at October Airport, Moscow
11:00 P.M. - Took off from Moscow
FRIDAY, JUNE 26
7:05 A.M. - Passed over Omsk, Siberia
9:32 A.M. - Landed at Novo-Sibirsk
6:45 P.M. - Took off from Novo-Sibirsk
SATURDAY, JUNE 27
A.M. - Landed at Irkutsk, Siberia
JUNE 28 - JULY 1
- Blagovyeschensk, Siberia
- Khabarovsk, Siberia
- Solomon, near Nome, Alaska
- Fairbanks, Alaska
- Edmonton, Canada
- Cleveland, Ohio
- Landed at Roosevelt Field, N.Y.
4.9: NACA to NASAClick on DC-3 for Video of early commercial airline operation.
4.10: Sputnik and the Space AgeSound of SputnikThe Sputnik launch also led directly to the creation of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). In July 1958, Congress passed the National Aeronautics and Space Act (commonly called the "Space Act"), which created NASA as of October 1, 1958 from the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) and other government agencies.
Lesson 5: Thursday, Sep 18
Reading: Pylon by William Faulkner
Questions: Flying as metaphor
- Chapters 3 & 4
Regarding T.S.Elliott's Wasteland:
- What are the "themes of modernity" in this poem?
- What is the context for "death by water?"
- What do you think is the main point of Wasteland and why?
- What would you delete from the poem? Why?
- How do you think Faulkner was inluenced by Elliott? Look at pages 13-14 on the airfield in Pylon. How does this description compare with the language in Wasteland? Find common terms.
- Why should we fear "death by water" in the Wasteland? in Pylon?
- How does the plot in Pylon resemble a skeleton?
5.1: In Pylon, flying is a metaphor for what? (Clue: freedom for or from something)
5.2: Explain role of flying in lives of major characters
5.3: Identify main events/decisions made by characters
5.4: Predict potential consequences of decisions made by main characters
Lab Activity 2: Properties of Air
Lesson 6: Tuesday, Sep 23
The Nature of Liquids and Gases - Physical and Thermal Properties
Reading: Chapter 3Questions:
Description and Properties Behavior of Liquids at Rest
- Find the weight of the air in a room with dimensions of 20 ft X 12 ft X 15 ft. The weight density of the air is 0.08 pounds per ft3 (answer)
- An iron anchor weighs 250 pounds in air and has a weight density of 480 lbs/ft3 . If it is immersed in sea water that has a density of 64 lbs/ft3 how much force would be required to lift it while it is immersed? (answer)
- An aluminum bar weighs 17 pounds in air. How much force is required to lift the bar while it is immersed in gasoline? The weight density of aluminum is 170 pounds /ft3 and that of gasoline is 42 pounds /ft3.(answer)
- How much does a 20 ft x 10 ft x 8 ft swimming pool filled with water weigh? Assume the water has a weight density of 62 lbs/ft3.(answer)
- A balloon weighing 80 kg has a capacity of 1200 m3. If it is filled with helium, how great a payload can it support? The density of helium is 0.18 kg/ m3 and the density of air is 1.30 kg/ m3. Express your answer in newtons. (answer)
Objectives: You should know that
6.1: Both liquids and gases are called fluids. They do not offer resistance to a change of shape.
6.2: Density r(pronounced rho) is the mass per unit volume.
6.3 Dynamic Viscosity, m, (pronounced mu) is a measure of the internal friction of the fluid.
6.4 Kinematic Viscosity, n, (pronounced nu) is the ratio of the dynamic viscosity to the density.
6.5 In general, air acts like an incompressible fluid. This means that an application of pressure does not change the volume of a fluid. At transonic and supersonic speeds compressibility effects must be considered.
6.6 The Principle of Bouyancy, or Archimedes Principle, states that an object immersed in a fluid experiences an upwards or lifting force exactly equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.
6.7 The standard pressure of the atmosphere is 14.7 psi
6.8 The Hydrostatic Equation suggests that the increase in pressure for a fluid is dependent soley upon its depth and unrelated to the shape of the reservoir.
P1 - P2 = w h
The specific weight (w = r g ) times the height of the column gives the pressure increase as predicted by Archimedes. The cross sectional area of the column does not appear in the equation
Lesson 7: Thursday, Sep 25
Reading: Pylon by William FaulknerQuestions: The nature of renunciation:
Chapters 5 & 6 Compare "Prufrock" in Elliott
- What are the key decisions made by the Reporter that affect the crisis in Chapter 5?
- What are the key decisions made by Schumann that affect the crisis in Chapter 5?
- describe the committee scene to allow the "crate" to fly (pp 225-230) Who are the principle decision makers? How does the process unfold?
- Who is the Grim Spectator ?
Activity: Paste event cards on the wall depicting order of events. Note that events are thematic but there is an absence of plot in the novel.
7.1: Explain role of and types of community
7.2: Identify critical events leading to crisis for Schumann
7.3: Continue running list of themes/metaphors for modernity
Lab Activity 3: Introduction to the X-Prize
Lesson 8: Tuesday, Sep 30
The Atmosphere of the Earth
Reading: Chapter 4Questions:
History and Composition Structure Global Circulation
1. What is the lowest level of the atmosphere called?
2. What does the Greek word tropos mean?
The troposphere contains 75% of the atmosphere's total mass
In either space or time the troposphere is not constant
Weather occurs in the troposphere
The troposphere is 10 miles from the equator
The troposphere is 5-7 miles above the poles
Does not contain ozone
The temperature in the troposphere can reach -80*C
3. What is meant by the adiabatic lapse rate and what is its standard value?
4. What is scale height? What are its values in terms of 1/e and 1/2?
5. Why do satellites decay in their orbit?
8.1: Ratio of actual pressure or density to that at sea level decreases by a factor of two roughly every 18,000 or 5.5 km.
8.2: Distinguish between the levels of the atmosphere including, troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, ionosphere and exosphere.
8.3: Explain the normal motion of the jet stream in the atmosphere.
8.4: Explain elements of the Standard Atmospheric Table.
Lesson 9: Thursday, Oct 2
Reading: Pylon by William FaulknerQuestions: Coming full circle: payoffs in-kind and in kindness
Activity: Reflection Paper # 1 due, 3 - 5 pages
9.1: Integrate theme of novel and additional readings (Joyce, Elliott) ( possible reflection paper topic)
9.2: Rate extent to which narrative style in Faulkner achieved its goals relative to theme of modernity
9.3: Discuss possible alternative outcomes for Pylon
9.4: Write chapter sequel to novel from point of view of one/all characters ( possible reflection paper topic)
Lab Activity 4: Building and Flying a Free Flight Electric Powered Model Airplane
Lesson 10: Tuesday, Oct 7
Exam # 1 , Chapters 1 - 3 Wegener
This "Opportunity to Excel" will be given during the first half of the class. It covers the materials of Wegener Chapters 1 -4. The remaining portion of the period will continue with a discussion of the air in motion, Bernoulli's Theorem and Boundar Layer.
Air in Motion
Reading: Chapter 5Questions:
Description of Movement: Kinematics Conservation of Mass and Energy Viscosity and Turbulence The Boundary layer
Activity: Video - The Life and Times of PANCHO BARNES: In the five years between 1942 and 1947, the United States developed jet aircraft and broke the sound barrier, which gave the U.S. a technological edge that we still maintain today. This technological edge came in large part from the men who worked on these projects at Muroc Army Air Corps Base, now Edwards, AFB. They are the jet pioneers of America who brought the U.S. into the jet age, and Pancho’s Happy Bottom Riding Club was their playground.They went there to share lessons learned in flying these new jets, and to relax and let off steam. Since Pancho was a pioneer air racer and motion picture stunt pilot, she understood the stresses and hardships they were going through and helped them in any way she could. She was not mom to them, she was one of them.
Objectives: You should be able to Explain that
10.1: Kinematics comes from a Greek word meaning motion. It is the branch of fluid mechanics that deals with the description of fluid motion, including both gases and liquids.
10.2: Vectors symbolize the motion of a fluid at any time. They give both magnitude and direction. We call this a schematic representation of the motion.
10.3: A Streamline is a curve that is at all times and in all locations tangent to the velocity vector. So Steamlines show the visual flow of the fluid.
10.4: Reynolds Number is the ratio of the inertial force to the viscous force.
10.5: In Steady Flow, particle paths and streamlines are effectively identical.
10.6: For Incompressible Flow the density of the fluid remains constant. Thus the conservationof mass effectively means conservation of total volume of material in motion (steady fluid flow.)
10.7: Continuity Equation: Assumes steady flow. In other words, the amount of air that passes through one cross sectional area is the same as that passing through another.
10.8: The flow rate is then simply given by:
A1 v1 = A2 v2
10.9: Bernoulli's Equation states that the total pressure is the same everywhere, made of the sum of the static pressure and the dynamic pressure:
Po = P1 + 1/2 r v12 = P2 + 1/2 r v22
10.10: Po is the stagnation pressure, i.e., the static pressure when the velocity is zero
10.11: Newton's Law of Shear tells us that the shear force increases with increasing velocity.
10.12: Know the difference between laminar and turbulent flow.
10.13: The Flow of air in a wind tunnel is like flow of blood in an artery except for different viscous forces and densities.
Lesson 11: Thursday, Oct 9
Introduction to Wolff & NASA
Reading: The Right Stuff by Tom Wolfe
Questions: Introduction to NASA history/primary events in avaition & space
Activity: Movie: "The Right Stuff"
11.1: Explain concept behind creation of NASA
11.2: Discuss major themes/characters in movie
Lab Activity 5: Flight Operations at Local Airport - Orientation Flight in High Performance Glider
Dr. Flower giving a ride to a friend in ASK-21 Glider
Lesson 12: Tuesday, Oct 14
Turning to Aerodynamics
Reading: Chapter 6Questions:
How Do We Test Models of Airplanes? Drag, Lift, and Other Coefficients
- Two boats are side by side at anchor on a river, a short distance apart. If the speed of the water in the river increases, what happens to the distance between the boats? Explain your answer.
- Why can the roof of a building fly off in a high speed windstorm? What can be done to prevent this? Why do people place automobile tires on the roofs of mobile homes?
- In the World Series many of the fast balls crossed the plate at nearly 100 mph. (Well, most did more like in the 90s, but 100 mph is about the upper limit.) Compute its Reynolds Number.
- Explain why a baseball actually can curve. Or does it?
- The new Queen Mary II has a length of more than 1130 feet. At the water line this is more like 1000 feet. If it moves at 30 mph, what is its Reynolds Number? Do yopu expect a largely laminar or turbulent boundary layer on the ship below the water surface?
Objectives: You should be able to :
12.1: Explain why Low speed windtunnels use largely subsonic airflow, which is considered incompressible
12.2: Explain why windtunnels are convenient to express aerodynamic problems
12.3: Changes in airflow about a model, or even a real airplane are generally moderate and do not substantially alter the air density.
12.4: The Reynolds Number is a dimensionless similarity parameter:
Re = U l r / m
12.5: The Drag Coeficient can be written: CD = D / qS
12.6: The Lift Coefficient can be written: CL = L / qS
Four Forces of Flight
During flight the four basic forces acting on an aircraft are lift, drag, thrust, and weight.Lift is the upward force created by the airflow as it passes over the wings. This force is the key aerodynamic force, and is opposite the weight force in level flight. In straight-and-level, unaccelerated flight, the aircraft is in a state of equilibrium so that he lifting force is equal to the weight of the aircraft. Thus the aircraft does not climb or dive. If the lifting force were greater than the weight, then the aircraft would climb. If the aircraft were to loose some of it's lift, it would continue to climb unless the weight of the aircraft was more than the lifting force. In this instance, the aircraft would begin to descend back to earth. Obviously these statements are simplified. In the real world , all the forces are intimately related.So, how is lift generated? Pilot's know of the Bernoulli Principle. It's the basic principle of pressure differential. The discoverer, Daniel Bernoulli, simply stated "the Total Pressure is Constant. This is the saum of the dynamic (moving) pressure plus the static (stationary) presure." Air is considered a fluid and therefore falls within the Bernoulli Principle. Now, let's break down this analysis to figure out how lift is generated:
A flow that is traveling faster will have a smaller static pressure, according to Bernoulli because the dynamic pressure is increased. Airplane wings are shaped to take advantage of this principle. The curvature on top of the wing (called camber) causes the airflow on top of the wing to accelerate. This acceleration leads to a higher velocity air on top of the wing than on bottom, hence a lower pressure area on top of the wing than on bottom. The resulting pressure differential between the two wing surfaces causes an upward force we call lift.
Try this. Take a piece of notebook paper. Hold it with both hands so that you are holding two of the corners between your fingers (one corner per hand). Pull the paper tight as if you are trying to pull it apart, and blow across the top of the paper. As you blow across the paper the dynamic pressure increases so the static pressure decreases. On the other side of the paper the static pressure is constant. This exceeds the static pressure on the top so the paper rises. You should be able to readily demonstrate this effect to your friends.
One thing to keep in mind is that not all the lift of an aircraft is generated by this principle (although most of it is). Newton's Third Law of Motion also helps to generate a small portion of the lift. The Law states "for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction." So, the air that is deflected downward by the bottom surface of the wing produces an upward, or lifting, force. This law of motion is the principle reason water skiiers can stay on top of the water. The skis deflect the water downward, producing the lifting force necessary to sustain the skiier above the water.
Drag is the retarding force (backwards force) that limits the aircraft's speed. It is caused by the production of lift. Anytime the aircraft is producing lift, it is also producing drag. Any deflection or interference with a smooth airflow around the airplane will cause drag. Drag is broadly classified as either parasite drag or induced drag.
Parasite Drag- This is all the drag created by the airplane, except for the drag directly associated with lift. It increases as the airspeed of a plane increases. This type of drag is normally divided into three sub types.
- Form Drag - This drag is created by any structure that protrudes into the wind. The amount of drag created is dependent upon the size and shape of the structure. Streamlining reduces this type of drag, hence the big push to streamline automobiles and airplanes. Even skaters streamline themselves.
- Skin Friction Drag - This type of drag is caused by the texture of the airplane's surfaces. The smoother a surface is, the less skin friction drag that is developed.
- Interference Drag - This drag occurs when the currents of air over various parts of the airplane meet and interact. The most common location for this occurrence is where the wing and the fueslage meet. It is pronounced when landing gear are extended.
Each of the above three types of parasite drag varies with airspeed, but the combined effect varies proportionally to the square of the airspeed. That is, an aircraft flying at 200 knots will have four times the parasite drag as a similar aircraft at the same altitude at 100 knots.
Induced Drag - Induced drag is the by-product of lift. It is directly related to the angle-of-attack of the wing. The greater the angle-of-attack, the larger the induced drag. Since at slower speeds the angle-of-attack is usually higher than at higher speeds, the induced drag is higher at low speeds than it is at high speeds.
The total drag for an aircraft is the sum of the parasite drag and induced drag. As you can see, an aircraft faces a hard road in trying to overcome drag. At slow speeds, the dominant drag is induced drag, but as you speed up parasite drag overcomes induced.
Thrust is the forward force that "propels" the aircraft through the air. Sometimes it is provided by an engine that turns a propeller. Each propeller blade is similar to a wing on an aircraft. The shape and angle-of-attack of the blades produces a low pressure region in front of the propeller and increased pressure behind it. Going back to the Bernoulli Principle and Newton's Third Law of Motion, the aircraft has a great tendency to move forward.
Weight is the opposing force to lift. It is caused by the downward pull of gravity on the aircraft's mass. It always acts downward. The weight of an airplane is not constant. It especially varies with the fuel. As an airplane flies along, it is getting lighter because it is burning off fuel. Crop dusters, military cargo planes, and sky diving planes also decrease their weight during flight by either loosing their cargo or some passengers.
Lesson 13: Thursday, Oct 16
Reading: The Right Stuff by Tom WolfeQuestions: What is Group 20?
Chapters 1 - 4
Activity: Group assignment
13.1: Explain concept of “left behind” in practical and existential terms
13.2: Identify and compare various roles of women/wives in chapters
13.3: Explain roles of external entities (outside the military) to the mission
Lab Activity 6: Wright Brother's Wind Tunnel
Lesson 14: Tuesday, Oct 21
Reading: Chapter 7Questions:
What Is Drag? Blunt Bodies The Strange Case of the Sphere Slender Bodies, Skin Friction, Airfoils Automobiles
- Explain why geese fly in a V-Formation.
- A housefly has a wing span of 0.013 m and its optimum flying speed is about 2 m/s. What is its approximate Reynolds Number for sea level flight?
- Suppose a wind tunnel test gives a drag force of 2 pounds and a lift force of 20 pounds. Draw the resulting aerodynamic force on an airfoil with these conditions.
Objectives: You should be able to
14.1: Describe and distinguish between the various types of Parasite Drag including Form Drag, Skin Friction Drag and Interference Drag.
14.2: Draw a Thrust required vs. Airspeed curve to show that Parasite Drag is proportional to speed squared.
14.3: Explain how Drag varies with Angle of Attack.
14.4: Define Angle of Attack as the angle between the mean chord line and the free stream airflow.
14.5: Compare relative amounts of Form Drag for various shapes of airfoils
14.6: Explain how Skin Friction Drag is related to the Boundary Layer.
14.7: Show how Interference Drag can be lessened.
Astronaut Sally Ride and Dr. Flower
Lesson 15: Thursday, Oct 23
Reading: The Right Stuff by Tom WolfeQuestions: What is the “right stuff”?
Chapters 5 - 6
Activity: Group assignment
15.1: Identify names and personalities of Mercury 7
15.2: Explain roles of support staff
15.3: Explain concept of “single combat”
Lab Activity 7: Introduction to Rocketry This is a two week lab. During the first week you will construct a model rocket, attending to minimization of drag and consideration of impulse, momentum transfer and forces acting on the rocket during flight. During the second week you will actually fly the rocket, measure thrust using a lap top computer and develop a spreadsheet to predict actual trajectory. Your actual flight will be compared with the predicted.
Midterm Break, Oct 24 - 26
Lesson 16: Tuesday, Oct 28
Reading: Chapter 7, ContinuedQuestions:
What Is Drag? Blunt Bodies The Strange Case of the Sphere Slender Bodies, Skin Friction, Airfoils Automobiles
Objectives: You should be able to
16.1: Describe the different types of drag as Parasite and Induced drag
16.2: Explain how parasite and induced drag respectively depend upon airpseed as a variable.
16.3: Draw the respective Drag Curves and Total Drag curves.
16.4: Relate Total Drag to thrust required to fly an airplane.
16.5: Find point where Drag is a Minimum.
16.6: Compare Lift and Drag Coefficient Curves vs. Angle of Attack.
16.7: Explain what L/Dmax is and how to find it on the Thrust Required or Drag vs Velocity curve
16.8: Explain how Induced drag depends on Aspect Ratio of a wing.
16.9: Describe the Aspect Ratio of some well known airfoils (aircraft, birds, etc.)
16.10: Explain what devices such as Winglets do to minimize drag and tip separation.
Lesson 17: Thursday, Oct 30
Reading: Reading: The Right Stuff by Tom WolfeQuestions: What does “light the candle” mean?
Chapters 11, 12, 15 - Note: Not all chapters are covered. There is a discontinuous jump from chapter 5 and 6 to this.
17.1: Explain role/significance of religious faith in space flight
17.2: Explain role of the press for space missions
17.3: Identify themes/vocabulary used to create vision (e.g. terra incognita)
Lab Activity 8:Lesson 18: Tuesday, Nov 4
Reading: Chapter 8Questions:
Early Experience and Some History Lift of the Infinitely Extended Wing The Finite Wing of an Airplane
Objectives: You should be able to
18.1: Describe the four forces acting on an aircraft in level flight. Since Lift = Weight in unaccelerated level flight, be able to calculate the stall speed and estimate what final approach speed must be relative to this.
18.2: Explain what L/Dmax airspeed if for an aircraft in level flight.
18.3: Show what the "region of reversed " command is on a Thrust Required vs. Velocity Curve.
18.4: Compute "g" loading on an airplane as a function of angle of bank.
18.5: Explain why airplanes cannot fly at 90 degree bank angle.
18.6: Explain what speeds an airplane should be flown at for maximum endurance and maximum range.
18.7: Describe what changes must be made in wind for both headwinds and tailwinds.
Lesson 19: Thursday, Nov 6
Reading: The Right Stuff by Tom WolfeQuestions:
Oral reports on aspects of aerospace / aviation / space history Short Test on The Right Stuff
Activity: Reflection Paper # 2 is replaced with oral report.
Objectives: Whose future is it?
(any of the following may be used as possible reflection paper topic):
19.1: Compare and contrast images/metaphors for the future in the novel
19.2: Identify and describe metaphors for death and dying and their significance for promoting life
19.3: Explain elements of ‘right stuff’ as relates to the unfolding of character in life of one mission pilot
Lab Activity 9:
Lesson 20: Tuesday, Nov 11
Aerodynamics and Whatever Else We Ought Consider
Reading: Chapter 8, Continued
- Butterflies, Dragonflies and High Speed Birds - What we've learned from nature and still are learning See the Flapping Wing Web Site
- The X-Prize
The X PRIZE is a $10,000,000 prize (yeah - that's $10 Million bucks) to jumpstart the space tourism industry through competition between the most talented entrepreneurs and rocket experts in the world. The $10 Million cash prize will be awarded to the first team that:
- What is the X-prize?
The X PRIZE competition follows in the footsteps of more than 100 aviation incentive prizes offered between 1905 and 1935 which created today's multibillion dollar air transport industry.
- Privately finances, builds & launches a spaceship, able to carry three people to 100 kilometers (62.5 miles)
- Returns safely to Earth
- Repeats the launch with the same ship within 2 weeks
Goals of the Competition:
- What are some of the other prizes offered throughout the history of aviation that may have provided a stimulus for rapid development of certain concepts or ideas?
- What are the guidelines, etc. The following is taken directly from the X-Prize Organization's rules:
The purpose of the X PRIZE is to promote the development and flight of spaceships able to provide low-cost commercial transport of humans into space. These preliminary guidelines have been written with this intent and will be further drafted, interpreted and defined by the X PRIZE Rules Committee towards this end. Once the rules are finalized, all judging will be conducted by an independent Review Board. All decisions of the X PRIZE Review Board will be final and binding upon all participants.
1. As a condition of entering and becoming a participant in the X PRIZE Competition, entrants will be required to first agree to be bound and abide by the rules, decisions and interpretations which will be further promulgated by the X PRIZE Rules Committee and its designated representatives. Entrants will also be required to agree to fully cooperate with the X PRIZE Review Board in monitoring X PRIZE entrants and competition requirements.
2. Flight vehicles will have to be privately financed and built. Entrants will be precluded from using a launch vehicle substantially developed under a government contract or grant. Entrants will be prohibited from receiving any direct funding, subsidies, and grants of money, goods, or services from any government (or otherwise tax-supported entity). Entrants will be permitted to utilize government facilities if access to such facilities is generally available to all entrants. Any such goods or services used in connection with the competition must be available to other entrants on similar terms. Entrants will be permitted to utilize subsystems previously developed by a government agency that are currently available on a commercial or equal-access government-surplus basis, or for which manufacturing rights and specifications are available on an equal-access basis
3. The flight vehicle must be flown twice within a 14-day period. Each flight must carry at least one person, to minimum altitude of 100 km (62 miles). The flight vehicle must be built with the capacity (weight and volume) to carry a minimum of 3 adults of height 188 cm (6 feet 2 inches) and weight 90 kg (198 pounds) each. Three people of this size or larger must be able to enter, occupy, and be fastened into the flight vehicle on Earth's surface prior to take-off, and equivalent ballast must be carried in-flight if the number of persons on-board during flight is less than 3 persons.
4. The second flight must demonstrate economical vehicle reusability. It is the X PRIZE Rules Committee's intent that the winning flight vehicle should exhibit sufficiently low per-flight costs such that the flight vehicle will support low-cost space access. Toward this end, no more than 10% of the flight vehicle's first-flight non-propellant mass may be replaced between the two flights.
5. The crew must return to the Earth's surface from both flights in good health as reasonably defined and judged by the X PRIZE Review Board. The flight vehicle must return from both flights substantially intact, as defined by and in the sole judgment of the X PRIZE Review Board, such that the vehicle is reusable.
6. Entrants must specify and provide the X PRIZE Rules Committee with their take-off and landing location, and the date of their launch, not less than 30 days prior to any flight attempt.
7. The X PRIZE Competition is international in nature and is open to all qualifying entrants who agree to be bound and abide by the rules which shall be further promulgated by the X PRIZE Rules Committee and administered by the X PRIZE Review Board.
8. In addition to signing any releases, rules, and agreements that the X PRIZE Rules Committee may require, all entrants for the X PRIZE will also be required to timely submit a letter of intent to the Review Board which fully details their respective compliance with the rules and regulations, the general nature and configuration of their vehicle, and their intended flight plans. All releases, agreements, and letters of intent will have to be received, accepted and acknowledged by the X PRIZE Rules Committee during a time frame to be specified but, in no event, later than three months prior to the respective entrant's first flight attempt. The X PRIZE Review Board will be the final arbiter on whether an entrant complies with the rules and regulations. It is the intent of the X PRIZE Rules Committee that all communications and technical information disclosed to the Review Board which reflects confidential information, except as otherwise agreed, will be held in confidence. The X PRIZE Review Board members, or a duly designated Review Board representative, must monitor all flight attempts, and any period of time in-between scheduled flights.
9. X PRIZE entrants will be required to comply with, or obtain waivers, for any and all international, national, regional, or local laws or regulations, of any kind, which pertain to or govern any activities conducted by the entrants in connection with the competition including, but not limited to, the manufacture, construction, testing or launch of their respective flight vehicles.
10. Entrants will be required to carry an X PRIZE-provided flight recorder to monitor the flight profile and altitude achieved.
11. All X PRIZE entrants shall be required to prominently display the service marked/trademarked X PRIZE® and the NEW SPIRIT OF ST. LOUISSM logos (of size and color to be prescribed) on their flight vehicles.
12. The general guidelines set forth herein, although intended to provide a preliminary summary of the anticipated rules of the X PRIZE Competition, are expressly subject to change. Furthermore, in order for a person to qualify as an entrant, among other criteria yet to be set, any such entrant must first sign any releases, rules, and agreements that the X PRIZE Rules Committee may require.
All Officers, Trustees, Review Board, and Rules Committee members of the X PRIZE Foundation as of 18 May 1996 are expressly prohibited from competing for the X PRIZE.
Activity: Class challenge is to design a vehicle (although we will not construct said vehicle because of monetary and time constraints) which would meet the criteria of the X-Prize. The class team will design the vehicle, how it will be launched, flown, recovered and relaunched to include any needed flight testing and human safety considerations. This activity may use the class wind tunnel, NASA facilities and advice, and any other resources available. It will replace the remainder of labs for the semester with a class report due the last lab period or class. Conditions are negotiable with the class and professors Flower and Quanbeck. Keep in mind that this prize is intended to promote civilian development of space for recreation and or profit. This is not intended to have NASA develop, support or compete with said competition. This will be ongoing for the rest of the semester, taking a portion of each aero class for discussion and assistance. Remaining laboratory periods will be devoted completely to the project.
20.2: What is the X-Prize?
20.3: Some frequently asked questions and responses:
1. Industrial Bonds
Can an X PRIZE Team utilize industrial development bond financing for the development of its ship without violating the private financing requirement of the competition?
Industrial development bonds can be used as a financing mechanism for X PRIZE teams. Industrial development bonds provide tax-free revenues to investors. Companies usually have to locate a significant part of their operations within a city or state in order to qualify for industrial revenue bond financing. In return, the state or local government approves the company for tax free revenue bond treatment. The funds raised by these bonds come from private investors rather than from government sources.
The intention of the Private Financing rule is to exclude government-sponsored vehicles from the X PRIZE Competition. Industrial development bonds are not a government grant or contract but are a standard financial obligation between investors and the company. Therefore conventional industrial revenue bonds are not excluded as a financing mechanism for teams competing for the X PRIZE.
2. Balloon Launching
If an X PRIZE vehicle is launched through a balloon in such a manner as to destroy the balloon envelope, will the mass of the envelope be counted as part of the non-propellant mass of the system for purposes of the "10% rule?"
Yes, the mass of the discarded envelope will be counted.
No more than 10% of the non-propellant mass of the vehicle may be changed between qualifying flights for the X PRIZE Competition. The purpose of this rule is to encourage reusability and lead to the development of spacecraft that can be operated in a commercially viable manner.
20.4: Note that we are living in a monent of history. When historical conditions were not such that human progress was made by government or other entities, sometimes enterprising individuals or organizations offered prizes for someone to achieve the next step in the development of tcehnology or achievement. How do the visions and dreams become reality? In any case we, in this moment of time, may realize new levels of human achievement that most never dreamt possible. But the dreams of a few take us all along.
Lesson 21: Thursday, Nov 13
Introduction to Salter
Reading: Hunters by James SalterQuestions:
Start reading; no requirements today.
- What is The Goal of Excellence
- Who were the ATA Girls?
- What was the WAFS?
Activity: Movie:"Fly Girls"
Objectives: You should
21.1: Know what the WASPs were and their role in WWII
21.2: Identify metaphors for manhood (womanhood??)
21.3: Explain criteria for validation (compare movie and novel)
21.4: Describe main character in Hunters
21.5: View the video About the WAFS, WFTD and WASP programs during World War II.
(Length: 5:45 -- real player format; this may take a few moments to load but it is well worth it.) It would be good to view this BEFORE class.
Lab Activity 10:
Lesson 22: Tuesday, Nov 18
Notes on the Whole Airplane
Reading: Chapter 9Questions:
Stability and Control Propulsion: From Propellers to Rockets
Lesson 23: Thursday, Nov 20
Reading: Hunters by James Salter
- Chapters 1 - 6
Activity: Group assignment
23.1: Identify metaphors for art
23.2: Explain definition of authenticity in the novel
23.3: Explain relationship between instances of accomplishment and pleasure
Lab Activity 11:
Lesson 24: Tuesday, Nov 25
Toward High Speed Flight
Reading: Chapter 10Questions:
Pushing the Speed of Sound - Transonic Flight From Supersonic Transports to Future Dreams
Thanksgiving: Thursday, Nov 27
Now you can enjoy the Thanksgiving holiday. Have a blessed event and be thankful for all we have.
Nov 27 -- Thanksgiving Break -- Enjoy!!
Lesson 25: Tuesday, Dec 2
Toward High Speed Flight
Reading: Chapter 10, ContinuedQuestions:
Pushing the Speed of Sound - Transonic Flight From Supersonic Transports to Future Dreams
- What might airports of the future look like? Will they be located miles and miles from metropolitan areas or will they be located close to where people live and work? Does this have any ramifications as to the types of airplanes that need to be developed to serve people?
- Efficiency is on the side of bigger and fasater airplanes. If business people are correct and markets lie overseas will the development of bigger and faster airplanes be the route of the future?
- What about commuting? years ago, like fifty years ago, people dreamed of "flying" commuting cars to work. Will that happen? How much sense does it make? What would the skies look like? What about air quality? Could these be electric?
- Computers can do many things people can do. They could pilot airplanes and if the entire system was computer controlled it might be a place where fewer midair collisions occur because of collision avoidance systems. Is this feasable? What if real emergencies happen? Can computerized pilots do as well as human pilots?
- What about women in aviation? Are there societal reasons that there aren't more women in aviation?
- If airplanes get bigger on long flights will there be shops, exercise rooms, bars, and more opportunity to socialize as opposed to sardine type flying? Maybe this would be called "dream class" as opposed to first class or business class.
- What about military aircraft? We can readily see the need for a large cargo transport to deliver troops and equipment, and the need for smaller transports that can land on rough or unprepared fields. Will large helicopters be the way to go? What about fighters and bombers? Today "smart" bombs are more accurate than human controlled weapons. Has air warfare changed? To control the air is to control the battlefield. Will that ever change? Or is the battlefield changing? How?
- The SST Concorde flew its last flight in October 2003. Amazing that it was 100 years after the first flight of the Wright Brothers albeit not exactly to the day. It was unsuccessful not because it didn't meet all expectations in speed and comfort, but rather it failed economically. This particular aircraft was part of a $500 million dollar advertising venture by Pepsi Cola to regain some lost market share.
- What about the X-Prize? Will it pave the way for hypersonic aircraft to fly into outerspace and cruise halfway around the world in super short times? Is there a limit to how fast we have to get somewhere? Or will technology make air travel unnecessary?
- Airports are for airplanes and terminals are for people. Design a modern terminal of the future with access for dropping people off, parking, baggage claim, waiting areas, shops or Mallports (Minneapolis-St Paul IAP is America's top rated shopping airport), restaurants and ticket counters. Gate delays cost domestic carriers $22.38 a minute, $220 million a year system wide. How would you get people seated and minimize a simple thing like boarding time?
- In the light of security requirements, how could yous ecure an airport and not have so much of it be passenger only access?
- The Airbus A380 is planned to be a jumbo jumbo jet. It is expected to fly in two years. Basic specs suggest that compared to the Boeing 747-400:
Max Take Off Weight
Lesson 26: Thursday, Dec 4
Reading: Hunters by James Salter
Questions: Sacramentalizing the profane
- Chapters 7 - 12
Activity: Group assignment
26.1: Explain and give examples of Salter’s use of brevity and compression in his narrative style
26.2: Identify instances of ‘sacramentalizing the profane’ in narration
26.3: Identify and describe instances of the ‘hunt’
Lab Activity 12:
Lesson 27: Tuesday, Dec 9
Air Transportation and the Outlook for the Future
Reading: Chapter 11Questions:
The New Traffic Patterns What Next - Flying Saucers or What?
Objectives: You should be able to
27.1: Discuss the relative merits of what air and space transportation will look like in fifty years.
27.2: Consider that if the X-Prize is won in the near future, will it open the door for true commercial space travel? Will a spaceport ever be built in Minnesota? Where? Why there?
Lesson 28: Thursday, Dec 11
Last day of Class
Reading: Hunters by James Salter
Questions: Hunter or hunted?
- Chapters 13 - 18
- Chapters 19 - 25 and Reflection paper on The Hunters is due on 18 Dec during Finals Week.
Activity: Reflection Paper # 3 due, 3 - 5 pages; due during Finals Week
Objectives: (may be used as possible reflection paper topic):
28.1: Identify majors themes (ambition, detachment, excellence) in relation to the main character
28.2: Explain the significance of the title of the novel
28.3: Compare/contrast different ‘authenticities’ in the novel
The nature of the Final Exam is yet to be determined. Dr. Flower will be attending a meeting at Kill Devil Hill by Kitty Hawk, NC on Dec 17th. Is there a connection to this class?